As dúvidas sobre os veículos elétricos ainda são muitas e uma das mais frequentes é a autonomia. Somos muitas vezes questionados acerca da autonomia de determinado modelo mediante uma velocidade em autoestrada, por exemplo.
Este ainda é um factor importante na decisão de avançar para um veículo eléctrico ou então para conseguir escolher entre duas versões.
Assim deixamos a tabela elaborada pela Teslike que da uma boa ideia da autonomia de cada Tesla mediante as velocidades utilizadas. Não é 100% correcta mas está bem perto disso.
Fica também o descritivo de como chegaram até estes valores:
What does dyno mean?
It’s short for dynamometer.
How is ‘Range that should be advertised’ calculated?
It’s calculated by multiplying EPA Highway Dyno score by 0.7. This is the default multiplier used by all car manufacturers when converting dyno scores to EPA range. Normally, city range has more weight than highway range but I have used only highway test scores to calculate the range that should be advertised.
How is EPA rated range calculated?
Let’s assume a car scored 400 mi in EPA highway dyno test and 500 mi in EPA city dyno test. The first step is to calculate EPA highway and city range by multiplying the dyno scores by 0.7. EPA Highway range would be 400*0.7= 280 miles and EPA city range would be 500*0.7= 350 miles. Then you take 45% of highway range and 55% city range to calculate the combined range which is also known as EPA rated range. In this example, EPA rated range would be 280*0.45 + 350*0.55= 319 miles.
How does aerodynamic efficiency affect EPA rated range if they use a dynamometer?
Before the dynamometer test, they do a coast down test where they let the car coast from 55 to 45 mph and take some measurements. Then they enter these measurements into dynamometer settings. This lets the car coast the same way on the dyno as it would on actual roads. That’s how aerodynamic efficiency plays a role.
Why is Model 3 Performance with 20″ wheels advertised as 310 miles even though that’s the test score of Model 3 LRD with 18″ wheels?
There is something called the 33% rule. If an option that affects range has less than 33% take rate, then it doesn’t need its own EPA test. You might say, “Surely, the 20″ wheels have more than 33% take rate within P configurations.” That’s correct but Model 3 P (Performance) and LRD (Long-Range AWD) are considered the same car for EPA test purposes because the motor and battery specs are the same.
Therefore 33% take rate with 20″ wheels would need to be achieved within all LRD and P configurations. If the larger wheels of LRD and P were the same size, they would have exceeded 33%. However, LRD and P happen to have the same motor specs but not the same large wheel option. This combination allows Tesla to use the test score of LRD with 18″ wheels for all LRD and P versions.
What is the data source?
There are two main sources:
- EPA highway dyno tests
- Range tests by Consumer Reports
Consumer Reports tested the range of the Model 3 LR with 18″ wheels and Aero covers at 65 mph. The score was 350 miles (source). That’s the number I use in the table. However, they didn’t test all Model 3 versions. For example, Model 3 LR-AWD was not tested. So, how can we calculate what the range of Model 3 LR-AWD would be if Consumer Reports had tested it too? That’s where EPA highway dyno scores come in. We have these two numbers:
- Model 3 LR scored 454.7 miles in EPA highway dyno test
- Model 3 LR-AWD scored 422.6 miles in EPA highway dyno test
By extrapolation, I’m calculating that Consumer Reports range score for Model 3 LR-AWD at 65 mph should be 422.6 mi * 350 mi/ 454.7 mi= 325 miles. That’s the number the table shows. If Consumer Reports tests the Model 3 LR-AWD, I will use the actual score.
How about the Model S and Model X? Did Consumer Reports test these too? Yes, here are the scores with regenerative braking set to low:
- Model S 75D: 235 miles at 65 mph. Source: Video and Article
- Model X 90D: 230 miles at 65 mph. Source: Article
- Model 3 LR: 310 miles at 65 mph. Source: Article
Here are the numbers with standard regen, which is the setting almost all Tesla owners use:
Model S 75D: 265 miles at 65 mph
Model X 90D: 260 miles at 65 mph
Model 3 LR: 350 miles at 65 mph. Tested by Consumer Reports. Source: article
Consumer Reports tested the Model 3 LR with both regen settings but they tested the Model S 75D and Model X90D only with regen set to low. Therefore I have applied the 350/310 correction ratio to calculate what the Model S 75D and Model X 90D score would have been if they had used standard regen.
Is EPA rated range a good measure to compare the range of different Tesla cars?
No, because of 3 reasons:
1. EPA rated range shows the combined city and highway range. 55% of EPA rated range is based on the city test and 45% on the highway test. The city test replicates stop and go traffic at 21 mph average speed. You can see the details here. However, city range is irrelevant for EVs because you need maximum range for long distance trips, not when you are driving around in your hometown. Therefore I have used only the EPA highway dyno scores. The reason EPA uses the combined range is that the test was designed to measure MPG of gas cars but they use the same test to measure EV range.
2. EPA rated range is not even the actual combined city and highway score because EPA allows car manufacturers to inflate or deflate the scores after the test is done. Deflating happens by voluntary reductions. Car manufacturers are allowed to voluntarily reduce the EPA rated range they want to advertise. Tesla uses this option frequently for marketing purposes. For example, Model 3 LR, LR-AWD, and P all have 310 mi EPA rated range. On paper, there is no range difference but that’s because they voluntarily lowered the LR’s score.
Inflating happens by using alternative multipliers to convert dyno scores to EPA range. Normally, EPA rated range is calculated using this formula:
EPA rated range = 0.7 * [(EPA city dyno test * 0.55) + (EPA highway dyno test * 0.45)]
In the formula, the 0.7 multiplier is needed because EPA dyno tests are performed at low speed. The city test is performed at 21 mph and the highway test at 48 mph average speed. This results in unrealistically high range numbers. Therefore they apply the multiplier to convert the numbers to more realistic numbers. So far, all EV manufacturers have used the 0.7 multiplier except Tesla. Tesla actually uses 0.7 too but only for the Model 3. They use higher multipliers for S/X to inflate the numbers. More information about this can be found here.
If a car manufacturer decides to inflate or deflate their range numbers, the Monroney sticker (aka window sticker) and the numbers on EPA website show the inflated or deflated numbers. Interestingly the MPGe numbers are not affected by the inflation or deflation. In the past, there were some lawsuits related to inflated MPG numbers. I guess that could be the reason why car manufacturers and EPA decided not to inflate those numbers.
3. EPA tests are performed with the smallest wheels. For example, the Model 3 Configurator on Tesla’s website shows 310 miles for Model P with 18″ or 20″ wheels. Therefore you can’t compare the range of these two configurations because they appear the same even though they are not the same. The reason this is allowed is that there is something called the 33% rule. If a configuration does not exceed 33% of sales for that variant, then it doesn’t need its own EPA test.
Consumer Reports shows the range at 65 mph. How did you calculate range at 70, 75, 80 mph?
This is based on two sources:
1. Tesla’s graph here (I have measured the pixels in photoshop and created a transparent chart on a spreadsheet that matches this curve exactly.
2. Also, there is another test that shows Model S 85’s range at 45, 60 and 70 mph. Check out page 2 here. Both sources have very similar results.
What is the number under the ’30 min Supercharge’ column?
This column shows the range you add in a 30 min Supercharge session compared to the range at 65 mph. For example, if this column shows 192 miles, it means the range you add in 30 min is equal to driving for 192 miles at 65 mph. Why not use EPA rated range? Because EPA rated range is not comparable.
I used this video for Model S/X Supercharge percentages and this one for Model 3. In this last video, the Model 3 LR reaches 63% in 30 minutes. The range at 65 mph is 350 miles. Therefore you would add 0.63*350= 220 mi in 30 minutes that can be consumed at 65 mph.
Different wheel options:
It is well known that larger wheels reduce range. Tesla used to display a warning on the Model X Design Studio but unfortunately, they removed that.
There are 4 wheel configurations for the Model 3:
- 18″ wheels without aero covers
- 18″ wheels with aero covers
- 19″ wheels
- 20″ performance wheels
There are EPA documents that compare different wheel options. For example, on page 16 here, it shows these two numbers: 9.95 HP for Model 3 with 18″ and 11.13 HP for the Model 3 with 19″. The ratio is 9.95/11.13= 89.4%. Similarly, page 5 here, shows these numbers for Model S: 11.45 HP for the Model S with 19″ wheels and 12.78 HP for the Model S with 21″ wheels. The ratio is 11.45/12.78= 89.6%. I have used this data when creating this table.
How much range do Model 3 Aero Hubcaps add?
- 4.4% according to this test (270 vs 282 Wh/mi)
- 3.2% according to this test (157 vs 162 Wh/km) and
- 2.6% according to this test (312 vs 320 km range)
Model 3 Standard Range
Tesla hasn’t started making the Standard Range version yet. Therefore I want to explain how I calculated the range numbers even though this car doesn’t exist yet. The calculation is based on cell counts. We know that the Long Range pack has 4416 cells and the standard range has 2976 cells (source). The Model 3 LR’s EPA highway dyno test score is 454.7 mi (source: page 7). Using the cell count ratio, the Model 3 SR’s score should be (2976/4416) * 454.7 mi= 306.4 mi with 18″ wheels and no Aero covers.
However, that would be the range if the weight of the car remained the same as the Model 3 LR but the smaller battery is lighter. Luckily we know the weight numbers for these cars from Tesla’s page here: 3549 lbs. for the Model 3 SR and 4072 lbs. for the Model 3 LR. Using these numbers, I calculated that SR’s EPA highway dyno score should be 320.3 mi. From that, I calculated the range numbers for SR.
Model 3 Mid Range
In late November 2018, EPA added the Model 3 Mid-Range to their spreadsheets on their website. I have updated the calculations based on the latest data. See the article here.
The range numbers shown are for new cars. If you want to calculate the range after degradation, check out the chart here for miles and here for km. You can see that the range drops to 95% at 45,000 miles or 72,500 km. For the Model 3, the drop to 95% will actually happen at a 25% higher mileage than the Model S because the Model 3 is more efficient and requires fewer charge cycles to achieve the same mileage.